Recently I have had cause to revisit the diaries of Lady MATTHEWS which are kept in the Imperial War Museum in London, and were written particularly with her young children in mind – Stephen and Esther were 3 and 2 respectively when war broke out, and she wanted to leave them a record of what life was like at the time. The youngest, Bryan, her “war baby” as she called him, was born in 1917.
Annette Amelia MATTHEWS nee KITSON was the second wife of Sir John Bromhead MATTHEWS KC, who in 1914 was was Chairman of the County Bench, and they were both involved with social work in the area. Lady Matthews was also an early feminist, and was a member of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), serving as a Vice-President of the local branch and working in its War Relief Clothing Depot in their premises at 18 Crescent Road during the War.
The Kent & Sussex Courier of 4th September 1914 announced the opening of the Depot for the collection and distribution of ‘new and partly-worn articles of clothing suitable for convalescent soldiers or their wives and families’. By late October, the newspaper was reporting that ‘at the request of the Mayor, the Committee of the Clothing Depot of the NUWSS at 18 Crescent Road (a department of the Mayor’s scheme for the relief of distress) has also undertaken the collection and distribution of clothes for refugees, in addition to the collection and distribution for convalescent soldiers and civilians’.
Lady Matthews first records the presence of Belgian refugees in the town on Sunday 4th October, and soon she is writing of their visits to Crescent Road, and the stories they have to tell.
Below are transcriptions of the relevant entries. The stories speak for themselves. I may well add some comments in due course.
Note : other than the young couple Lady Matthews met in February 1915 following their marriage, and about whom I have written in a previous post (and therefore don’t include here) I haven’t (yet) been able to identify any of those she mentions.
Can you help? Kunt u mij helpen? Pourriez-vous m’aider a le faire? Thank you…
Lady MATTHEWS writes…
In early November 1914, young man from Tournai came to the Clothing Depot :
He was 21, of service age, & therefore sent out of Belgium by his parents. He was too shortsighted for service in his army – he would have been sent to the harvest fields in Germany, had he been caught. He told me how he & his family hid in a cellar while the Germans entered Tournai. Only 800 soldiers (french) opposed them, but these sufficed to hold up the Germans for the necessary 24 hours, tho’ it meant death or imprisonment to practically all the 800. The Germans immediately drink all the wine they find, & the burgomaster was taken in a motor to Brussels by an officer with a revolver but so drunk the officer’s head lay on the burgomaster’s shoulder. At Brussels the burgomaster was
asked told to sign a paper stating that the inhabitants of Tournai had fired on the Germans. He refused, but he was not shot, as he expected to be. In Tournai, the Germans burned 10 houses out of mere malice.
On Saturday 21st November 1914, it was the turn of a couple from Louvain :
A young Belgian, an automobile mechanic & his wife came in for clothes to our clothing Depôt this week. His history was quite a common one among refugees. He lived near Louvain & fled to Antwerp. When the bombardment began, this family had to quit owing to military orders. They took refuge in Ostend and lived in a bathing machine for three weeks, husband wife & two children with one blanket between them. The rain came through the roof, & they had but bread & water to eat & drink. Then Ostend became a threatened mark & they left again, and came over to England, where the man says they are ‘very happy’. We made him comfortable with overcoat, gloves, a suit, etc, & the wife also.
Wednesday 25th November 1914 :
This morning I was in our clothing Depôt & dealt with a Belgian, a musical artist who has lost his only son in the War. His wife had lost her reason, & he did not even know where she is.
Another man came in, with his family. He had lived at the ill-fated Malines, where now only a dozen houses are standing. His home is destroyed, and he & his wife & children fled to Bruges, Antwerp, Ostend, & so to England.
One Sunday in November, Lady Matthews entertained ‘a Belgian barrister and his dainty little wife’ to tea :
Neither can talk English. They have a villa near Knocke on the Belgian Sea Coast, & a flat in Antwerp. On Aug 4th they were at Namur with Madame’s parents. They endeavoured to persuade their parents to leave Namur. Madame’s father refused. Madame and her husband reluctantly left, & went to Knocke. They were warned to leave their villa about Aug 18th, in a hurry. They left with each a small valise in their summer clothes & went to Ostend. There an English gunboat consented to take them across. The transit took 24 hours, owing to difficulties & cautions regarding mines. They made their way from Chatham to London, where for 3 months they managed to live in a Boarding house on the few pounds they had in an available Bank. Their income depends on shares in a Factory which is now a heap of ruins. Their villa, left with unlocked doors, & unshuttered windows, must be looted, if not burnt by bombardment from the English monitors. Of the parents, & the little sister, remaining at Namur, they have not heard one single word since parting from them. And Namur was severely bombarded in August.
M. & Madame get each 7/- a week f. the English Government for food. The hostels are full of common people, & life is most difficult for differing classes in such close quarters. We are trying to get some classes up so that by teaching they may earn a little, & a generous old gentleman is paying for some nice rooms where they are.
The Bread of Exile is bitter indeed.
- After February 1915, there seem to be no more mentions of the Clothing Depot or the Belgian refugees. Maybe Lady Matthews stopped working there? The Depot closed in December 1917 as the Belgians no longer had need of it and it was felt that the people of Tunbridge Wells could no longer be expected to give away clothes ‘so lavishly’ in face of the national demand for economy. During the years it was open, 11,000 garments had been ‘dealt with’. (Kent & Sussex Courier, 14th December 1917)
- Private Papers of Lady Matthews – content description on IWM website : Extremely interesting illustrated four volume ms diary (111pp, 140pp, 172pp, and 132pp) written between August 1914 and November 1918 as a record of the First World War for her young children, with a particular focus on Tunbridge Wells, Kent, where she was living at the time, and including descriptions of: rising food prices; rumours over the progress of the war; the good levels of morale of the British and the atmosphere in Britain; the changes to Tunbridge Wells with the influx of soldiers to the town; helping the Red Cross with sewing clothes for wounded men; helping in the soldiers’ canteen; the blackout and Zeppelin raids; soldiers billeted in Tunbridge Wells; the introduction and administration of rationing; women at work in restaurants and as tram conductors (January 1916); wounded men arriving in Kent; seeing the film ‘Battle of the Somme’, and her reaction to it (4 September 1916); the difficulties in finding servants; the progress of the suffrage movement and the enfranchisement of women (26 August 1917); the Spanish Influenza pandemic (July and October 1918); celebrations on Armistice day; and her hopes for the peace (30 November 1918)….In circa 1924 Lady Matthews added brief notes to the text, correcting rumours she had reported and comparing the food prices to those of the 1920s.